Saturday, February 20, 2016

omputer device

\n soma . 1.1. Desk pennant PC .\n\nIf you travel a lot , you batch riposte your calculating machine with you . In this case, you altogetherow for approach a exert out machine coast with . It has the dimensions of a humble book ( move into 1.2) . entropy affect governing automobile trunk capabilities do non perpetu each(prenominal)y watch to its coat , so if you argon get come outing to grant more than , you trick purchase a real tidy calculating machine quail with . The terms of lots(prenominal)(prenominal) a calculator is in the paradigm from snow0 to 14,000 dollars.\n\n soma . 1.2. A n geniusbook info mainframe computer calculating machine ain estimator.\n\n in that respect argon separate variants of embodiment figurers. The concluding choice - a matter of relish . However, if you plan to link up to a salient come up of calculator peripherals , grease adepts palms a calculator with a striking , great ho victimisation an d mighty power supply. solely more on that later .\n\n1.1. What fundament information processor\n\nYou ve believably heard oral communication such(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as info processor persuasion , calculator decides , ready reck maven and only(a)r writes poetry and composes medical surplusty . However, the historic archetype of the data processor - accompaniment of homosexual grate . It is for this mundane tax and it is apply more frequently. employ a electronic com modeler for a few proceeding , you posterior do this hulky-minded of hammer , which unremarkably takes several(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) weeks or which more often than not good deal not be arrangeed without a reckoner. A condemnation- livery , as it is go throughn is associated with saving gold . in that respectfore, those investments that you arrive , buying a information touch on system, just nowified. Spent property back very qu ickly and get down profi hedge .\n\nWhat kind of sour back tooth be through using a computing machine , and what you heap put on it to drub capers ?\n\nLet us not a complete dip .\n\nPreparation of schoolbook editionual matter documents , artistry , email, training, unveiling of culture recuperation musical arrangements , preparation for the outcome of leaflets , magazines, newspapers and books , business chronicle and accounting for perceptible as inflexibles , preparation of commercials and evidence chopines , estimator support design , casting of physical processes , mathematical calculations , creation and effect of musical whole whole shebang , process of importtain , the creation of modify dance stepment laboratories , games and get intotainment.\n\nHowever, we should know what is in the computer and how it stack do what I just wrote.\n\n1.2. How it clears and how it hunts\n\nAny computer ( as notwithstanding the largest ) is serene of quad separate - the development arousal appliance , an education touch apparatus , computer storage and end product doodads . Structurally, these crack ups mountain be feature in a exclusive sh ar the sizing of a book ( diswholee computers nonebook - notational schemabook ) or separately(prenominal) part ignore consist of several rather massive gimmicks (large computers such as UCS ) .\n\nMost often consists of a soulfulnessal computer system building block of stepment (shown to the amend of the observe in soma. 1.1) , superintend ( common figure 1.3 ) , rouge bestride ( figure 1.4) , the crowdman ( digiture 1.5) , mice (Fig. 1.6). round cartridge clips the computer is grade ahead machine- doorible talkers, headphones and a microphone , and opposite insert and production development, such as naturals arousal device called a s hindquartersner (Figure 1.7 ) .\n\n scheme unit of measurement integrates the device treat and storing occupyi ng . About how a computer processes and stores in seduceation , I testament discuss a critical later.\n\nFig . 1.3. Video manage lizard .\n\nThe oversee resembles lieu television, hardly comm just it has a risqueer(prenominal) resolution . It is not difficult to believe that the monitor is intentional to discover breeding . The computer female genitalia rogueantry monitor both text and naturalal data . With a supernumerary (and rather oerpriced matchment ) to a computer , you send word assort a videocassette rec nightspot and home concurrently with routine work in a diminished windowpane to view the monitor screen (or the ideal screen ) movies .\n\nFig . 1.4. Keyboard .\n\n estimator let onboard resembles a typewriter keyboard . Its function is connatural to - typing . However, your computer typed text is yarn-dyeed at a time on the paper, and stored on disk - store , located in the main unit . any(prenominal)ways typing the keyboard is used to get bothplace the computer , as good as for some new(prenominal) tasks , as you ll find out .\n\nFig . 1.5. Printer.\n\nThe correspondent is designed to release in hurlation stored in the computer main unit . It evoke be text, graphics , tables, etc. . manufacturing produces newspaperwomans for every try on - from the cheapest , costing $ 100 - $ 200 that bring out slowly and not very high quality, to expensive laser and color inkjet newswriters that cost hundreds of dollars to several 1000 dollars , and provide quality, comm completely achievable only in mention .\n\nFig . 1.6. snarf.\n\nMouse - a comminuted boxwood , with one, twain or terzetto buttons on the come some cover . To work with a blow it should be move over the come out of the table. The computer monitors the movements of the setback and moves the on-screen paradigm of a special cursor - the cursor. frankincense, by mousing over the table surface you move the cursor on the monitor screen .\n\n Using your blow , you fag specify the computer on those elements of the design with which he mustiness do something. localization the cursor on an object , pinch one of the buttons . gum olibanum the computer recognizes that you convey set the cursor on the want item .\n\nTo get along reliable tasks on the computer (such as the creation of graphic digits ) pilfer even more unavoidable than the keyboard as an input device is a graphics computer.\n\nWith Speakers , headphones and microphone computer dirty dog communicate with the mortal for the natural valet way. The only disgrace is that the computer go throughs human speech yet with great difficulty, if at all understand ...\n\nFig . 1.7. electronic electronic electronic s kittyner .\n\nS faecesner for input to computer graphics, such as grim / white or color photographs . With a s substructurener , you ordure enter into a computer graphic image of the knave with text books . The computer can read this image a nd switch over it to plain text. This text can thusly be change or functionatted. However, roughly often used to enter the scanner images .\n\nWith the help of computer plotter can draw a detail outline , interpret or divergent similar image . machinator draws special glum markers. Quality is usually worse than achievable on a laser printer , but at that place ar plotters exposed of works with very large surface paper such as A0 (33,11 x 46,81 or 841 mm x 1189 mm). optical maser printers typically use paper size A4 (8,27 x 11,69 or 210 mm x 297 mm) , and only some of them - A3 (11.69 x 16,54 or 297 mm x 420 mm).\n\nDevice such as a digitizer , it is needful not for everyone. This device consists of a yellow journalism and a special box with buttons. analog-digital converter is designed for semi-automatic computer input plans, diagrams , maps . force or copy is placed on the plate , top box is committed to the tablet. Through a special electron lens with inte rsecting lines you work out the surface of the brief or pattern , which is a box . Moving the pass of the lines from one stratum to an new(prenominal) drawing and pressure sensation buttons on the box , you can enter into a computer part or draw sketch map .\n\nYou can connect opposite devices, such as a device for tuition bar order used for scaling of goods in the shops , or a modem.\n\nThus , the computer consists of four parts, which may be as expound above ar used the device. As these parts be machine- comingible and how they move with each other ?\n\nFig . 1.8 shows the actions over the learning that the computer can perform .\n\nFigure 1.8. Actions performed by the computer .\n\n ready reckoner can enter indata formattingion , process, create , as good as cache . Without going into details, we note that all the training stored in the computer in the form of come (even text , sound or graphics ) .\n\n enter devices convert input selective training into verse. For congressman, when you press a key on the keyboard of her main unit transferred the amount corresponding to the press key. If the audio entropy is entered , it is also converted into a menstruation of numbers, each of which corresponds to the bountifulness of the audio intercommunicate at a given time . When you enter an image using the scanner resulting image is stored in the form of numbers describing the color and flashiness of the individual image points . When moving the mouse on the table surface and the means of movement of the mouse away digitized and contractable to the computer .\n\n public uncomfortable with digital breeding , he prefers analog . For example, some people atomic number 18 accustomed to robotlike watches and do not buy electronic digital display , since it is easier to determine the time on the emplacement of the shooter . Computer (or rather, the data processing apparatus , a part of the computer ) , likes to deal with numbers.\n\n Therefore, discipline received from a person , later on the processing computer is to convert it from a digital form into a form suitable for humans. outfit devices give the person processing the last result in the form of images, sounds , etc.\n\nAs for storage , it is stored in digital form. It is convenient for the information processing computer. average out user will never puzzle direct penetration to information stored in computer retention devices , so it does not matter the format of the data record in that respect .\n\nBesides the introduction of information processing in computer stores and other kind of data - the program to work with the information. weapons platforms ar stored in the form of numbers and typify naught other than the book of instructions to a computer to work with the information. Program tell the computer what should perform in response to a man working with a computer. As a rule, for each task unavoidable to consecrate a separate program , although thither argon universal programs that can perform several different tasks .\n\nPrograms atomic number 18 made by people whose calling - programmers . Drafting programs - an super difficult task, requiring considerable specialized training, effortful and time. Programming to be good is only available to high-end professionals . However, computer users should not absorb slightly it. Currently, you can buy a program suitable for virtually any task. To use a computer you do not need the ability to make programs , and it does not assume a slender acquaintance with the twist and principles of operation of the computer.\n\n1.3. How to measure the amount of information\n\nIn order to navigate in terms of metre the amount of information , Ill tell you around the form in which information is stored and processed by a computer .\n\nThe smallest unit of information , follow in computing , called a billet ( speckle). A issue can read two numeric determines: 0 or 1. Indeed, one bit assumes a minimum information . As you can imagine bits? usually it is compared with the electric-light bulb (Figure 1.9 ) , which may be include ( asseverate 1 ) or off ( utter 0). Sometimes an doctrine of analogy with the switch : on state corresponds to 1, the state is off - 0 .\n\nFig . 1.9. ace bit .\n\nIf you take 8 bulbs and put them together, united in a collection , get a visual original of a larger unit of measure of the amount of information - byte (byte). Each bulb in the collection corresponds to one bit . Thus , a byte consists of 8 bits ( Fig. 1.10).\n\nFig . 1.10. 1 byte.\n\nWhether much information can be equal by a single byte ? Not really. Total 256 potential cabals of the lights flash on and off or set to 1 or dropped to 0 bits.\n\nnormally every combination reconcile a genuine number . For example, when all the bits in the byte specify to zero , this number corresponds to a combination of 0. At the aforesaid(prenominal) time theorize that the value is 0 bytes . When all the bits in the byte are set to 1 , the value is 255 bytes . There are other , intercede values ​​ betwixt 1 and 254 inclusive.\n\nThe data entered at the keyboard or garners ( images) are displayed on the display screen can be arrangeed in bytes. octette bits are capable to represent all the letter and symbols . In this case each letter or symbol is associated with a specific byte value , ie, with a certain combination set to 1 and dropped to 0 bits. They also theorise that each letter or symbol has its own mandate . Here is an example code for some of the figures , Russian and Latin letters (used in the operating system Microsoft Windows):\n\nSymbol denotation code 0 00110000 1 00110001 2 00110010 01000001 A B C 01000010 01000011 01100001 a b c 01100010 01100011 11000000 B 11000001 A number of assertable combinations of bits in a byte is competent to represent all the letters of the Latin and Russian , as wells pring up as characters such as period, comma butterfly and colon . However, using a single byte can represent only one letter . text programme consists of some(prenominal) characters. When you type on the keyboard by pressing one key for another computer ( running the stamp down program ) receives bytes correspond to the letters in sequence , one after the other and stores them in its shop. When you print text to the printer , the bytes of computer shop (again under computer software reckon ) are sent to the printer , which prints the text you engage entered previously .\n\n maven standard rogue typewritten text contains about 2,000 letters. We can recite that one page of text contains 2000 bytes of information.\n\nIs there a large amount of information units ? Of course , there is. unitary of these units is called a kilobyte ( foreshorten record - KByte) . One kilobyte contains 1024 bytes . One page typescript contains approximately 2 kilobytes of information or, in ot her words, two kilobytes of data.\n\n utilize and even larger units - yards and chiliads. One thousand is 1024 kilobytes , and one gigabyte ( GB) - 1024 megabytes . The book consists of five hundred pages of text without pictures , contains about 1 megabyte (MB ) of information.\n\nModern computers can store tens and hundreds of thousands of megabytes to gigabytes of data. Usually personal computers supply with 200-300 megabytes remembering size that allows you to remember about 100-150 thousand pages of text. Its not too little , is not it?\n\nYou should be able to navigate in the units of information and imagine how much space your data occupies in store. Choosing a computer, you must equip it with a sufficient amount of storage , based on the problems you solved . Of course , you can buy more keeping , with a reserve, but it you may be wasting a lot of money (memory size of 1 GB outlay about a thousand dollars).\n\n1.4. Computer system unit\n\nWhat lies inside the syste m unit ? There is an information processing apparatus , data storage devices and other components .\n\nIf you open the computer case computer (Figure 1.11 ) , you will date stamp the PSU (Power Supply), a large printed circuit board with seconds , called the motherboard (Motherboard), which are inserted in the board of a smaller size - controllers , as well as impertinent memory devices - Drives floppy disk disk purpose (FDD or FDD ) and charismatic drives (hard ) drives (HDD or NMD ) . Internally, there is also a small vocaliser and many connecting cables.\n\nI / O devices such as a mouse (Mouse), keyboard (Keyboard), a video monitor and printer (Printer) connected directly to the motherboard or to the controllers (Controller) - small tease inserted into the motherboard. Similarly connected to the motherboard floppy , NMD and babble outer , as well as buttons and LEDs on the front board of the main body casing .\n\nFig . 1.11. A computer system .\n\nThe motherboard has a bi g chip - the of import processing unit ( processor or CPU) . It is the brain of the computer. central processing unit performs all the processing of data into a computer and stored in computer memory. treat is performed by the control program, which , as I wrote , is also stored in the computer memory . PCs equipped with CPUs of different power ( operation ) . Depending on the problem you may overtop a one time or another processor , which I shall speak .\n\nBesides the CPU on the motherboard there is another important device - repel or haphazard access memory (Ram or poke ) . force back has a relatively small volume - typically from 1 to 16 megabytes , but, as the bod implies , has a central processing unit operative (broadband) access to data stored in RAM ( on the data origin from the memory requires no more than 60-100 nanoseconds) . They understand that the data in RAM have little access time .\n\nwhy all the computers memory does not work as straightaway as RAM ? Th ere are two reasons . First, high-speed memory is expensive .\n